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  5. Defence and Dual-Use Material

International Fora

A large number of countries, including all European Union countries, are members of the fora listed below. These fora do not apply sanctions or embargos but are instrumental in establishing harmonised agreements in respect of controls on exports and information sharing. The control mechanisms target the use of items and technologies for the production of arms and likewise those others which could be considered “sensitive” in terms of their end use (civilian-military dual-use items) in actions that disrupt peace or world / regional security or violate human rights.

List of member countries of international fora controlling the export of defence material and dual-use items and technologies

NUCLEAR SUPPLIERS GROUP (NSG)

This is a group of nuclear supplier countries whose aim is to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through the application of two sets of Guidelines targeting the export of nuclear and related products without interfering with international trade and cooperation in the nuclear field. This first set of guidelines applies to an initial list known as the "Trigger List" which includes nuclear material and specific equipment for nuclear purposes as well as related technology. The second set of Guidelines applies to a list of dual-use nuclear-industrial material and technology which could be used for nuclear activities or in the nuclear fuel cycle not subject to safeguards. The NSG does not have fixed headquarters but is rather a contact point located in Vienna. It is comprised of 46 member countries. Aside from the NSG, there is the so-called Zangger Committee (ZC) also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee constituted as another nuclear non-proliferation framework with the aim of achieving the across the board enforcement of article III.2 of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The NSG and Zangger Committee guidelines and control lists are published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the name of INFCIRC 254/ Part 1, INFCIRC 254/ Part 2 and INFCIRC 209, respectively.

MISSILE TECHNOLOGY CONTROL REGIME (MTCR)

This forum focuses on controlling the export of certain types of missile systems. The aim of the MTCR is to prevent the proliferation of long-range, large-payload missiles. It has a list of two categories of missiles with a range of over 300 km, their technologies and incorporated subsystems. 34 countries participate in this forum and the point of contact is in Paris.

WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT (WA)

This forum seeks to establish controls on the export of conventional arms and related dual-use items and technologies. It replaced the so-called Coordination Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) whose purpose was to set up a common control system of exports of the aforementioned items to the former Communist block nations. Two lists are controlled: the Dual-use List and the Munitions List. The Arrangement has 41 Participant Members States and its Headquarters and Secretariat is located in Vienna.

AUSTRALIA GROUP (AG)

This group seeks to control the export of certain chemical and biological substances and related items which could be used as precursors for weapons. The Australia Group is comprised of 38 Member States and its point of contact is the Australian Embassy in Paris. It has six annexes of controlled products (chemical precursors, dual-use products and chemicals, pathogenic agents for use against plants and animals and dual-use biological equipment). Furthermore, a large number of countries have signed the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.

Spain is a participant member of all of the aforementioned Fora.

The European Commission is participant member of Australia Group and permanent observer at NSG and at Zangger Committee.

List of Participant Member States of International Fora controlling Exports of Defence Material and Dual-use Items and Technologies

COUNTRIES WA RTCM NSG AG ZC
ARGENTINA X X X X X
AUSTRALIA X X X X X
AUSTRIA X X X X X
BELGIUM X X X X X
BELARUS     X  
BRAZIL   X X    
BULGARIA X X X X X
CANADA X X X X X
CHINA     X   X
CROATIA X   X X
CYPRUS     X X  
CZECH REP. X X X X X
DENMARK X X X X X
ESTONIA X   X X  
FINLAND X X X X X
FRANCE X X X X X
GERMANY X X X X X
GREECE X X X X X
HUNGARY X X X X X
ICELAND   X X  
IRELAND X X X X X
ITALY X X X X X
JAPAN X X X X X
KAZAKHSTAN     X   X
REP. OF KOREA X X X X X
LATVIA X   X X  
LITHUANIA X   X X  
LUXEMBOURG X X X X X
MALTA X   X X  
MEXICO X
NETHERLANDS X X X X X
NEW ZEALAND X X X X
NORWAY X X X X X
POLAND X X X X X
PORTUGAL X X X X X
ROMANIA X X X X
RUSSIAN FED. X X X
SLOVAKIA X   X X X
SLOVENIA X X X X
SOUTH AFRICA X X X X
SPAIN X X X X X
SWEDEN X X X X X
SWITZERLAND X X X X X
TURKEY X X X X X
UNITED KINGDOM X X X X X
UKRAINE X X X X X
UNITED STATES X X X X X

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